Cloud Computing; Past, Present & Future

Cloud Computing: Why & How did it Become One of the Most Rapidly Growing Need?


If you use services like Gmail, Google Photos, Google Drive, Microsoft Drive & watch movies on Netflix and Prime Video then; you are already exposed to the concept of cloud computing.

In simple terms, cloud computing provides on-demand services through the internet. Imagine you own a growing start-up and you’ve few employees, all your data is stored on the computer’s local drive. But gradually your company starts to accelerate, and you require more employees, more computers to store data, lot of hard-drives, SSD’s & HDD’s. With that, you also require a separate technical team to manage the transfer of data, create strategies for any problem & the cost of maintenance and power adds up, isn’t it frightening?

To eliminate all the above expenses, cloud computing was introduced. It’s a 3rd party remote service provider that stores all your data, allows you to do all the work of local drives, eliminates the headache of security & cost of power and maintenance. Not only that, but you can also customize it according to your requirements. And all these services in a nominal price range, profitable right?

That’s the reason cloud providers like Microsoft Azure, AWS & Google cloud are earning a hefty amount of money. Many companies have started to invest in cloud computing after realizing its significance and growth in the coming future. Some of which are IBM Cloud, iCloud, & Alibaba Cloud to name a few.

History of Cloud Computing

The Past

  • It was during the 1950s when the concept of Shared Computer Resources came into action. Some terms like Main Frame & Time Sharing were introduced.
  • The word Cloud hadn’t entered the scene till then.
  • It is believed that during the 1960s, Joseph Carl Robnett Licklider who worked on ARPANET, invented cloud computing. The purpose of ARPANET was to connect people and share data.
  • In 1969, the first working prototype of ARPANET was launched.
  • In 1970, people were introduced to “Client Service”. It was a computing model where users could access the data and applications from a central server.
  • In 1995, the internet was surfaced with diagrams and models of cloud computing which even technical people failed to understand.
  • By then AT & T Research Lab had started to create and develop a central server where data could be located.
  • In 1999, launched an enterprise application which was available in their website.
  • During that period, google launched its Search Engine and Netflix pioneered a way to generate revenue.
  • In 2003, Web 2.0 was born where people could share and create rich multimedia content.
  • In 2004, Facebook was launched which provided its users the facility to share information.
  • In 2006, Amazon Web Services (AWS) was launched which exposed users to a new concept.
  • During that period, Google CEO, Eric Schmidt introduced the word “cloud” at an Industry event.
  • In 2007, Apple launched iPhone which could be used on any wireless network.
  • Netflix took the chance and launched its live video-streaming services.
  • In 2008, the private cloud was invented.
  • In 2009, Google introduced its Browser based application named “Google Apps”.
  • In 2010, the hybrid cloud came into existence which was a combination of private and public cloud services.
  • In 2012, google came up with Google Drive which had free cloud storage.
  • In 2013, Worldwide Public Cloud Services Market generated total revenue of 78 billion Euros with IaaS (Infrastructure-as-a-service) becoming the fastest growing market service. 18.5% of the amount generated in 2012 was invested in this project.
  • During 2014-2015, the global business investing for infrastructure and services related to the cloud got skyrocketed and generated total revenue of 103 billion Euros. 20% of the amount generated in 2013 was spent on this Constellation Research project.

The Present

  • Cloud adoption is practiced nowadays which strengthens the whole concept of cloud computing to a much greater extent.
  • Software & IT Firms have progressed over the years after the introduction of technologies like Internet Service Provider (ISP) & Application Service Provider (ASP).
  • Research shows that Cloud Computing Market will generate an estimated revenue of 2 billion dollars by the end of the year with a rapidly growing demand for SaaS (Software-as-a-service) service provider by 41%.
  • During the forecast period, the global cloud computing market is expected to grow at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 16.3 percent, from USD 445.3 billion in 2021 to USD 947.3 billion in 2026 (marketsandmarkets, 2021).

The Future

  • The competition will be rising among companies to provide more data centres at a lower price.
  • The quality of the Internet will elevate at a faster rate. Clouds will provide enhanced and analysed performance.
  • The cost of software components will be going economical as applications will start storing data on different modules and servers of cloud service providers.
  • It will provide benefits both for the host and the customer in the coming years.
  • Cost-effective, security, flexibility, and scalability are factors that will provide better facilities to the users.

Why & How Cloud Computing is the Rising Beast?

On the report of Gartner data in Information & Technology, 75% of companies have been reported to use cloud-first strategy. Cloud computing is predicted to go hybrid soon to create greater and faster IT solutions. The cloud-based software products and on-premises compute will generate both advanced and enhanced results. The cloud that has been developed is scalable and flexible, allowing for Data Centre security and control. The coherent procedure of processing data is better and more organized.

According to research conducted by, 90% of companies will move their workloads to the cloud by 2024. Companies are generating high volumes of data which is vulnerable to risk and loss. Cloud computing on the other hand provides top-notch security to companies. With more companies turning their direction towards cloud computing, security is being taken for granted. It would also attract new enterprises which will promote another integral part of cloud computing i.e., Mutual Support Dependence.

The need for advanced security is rising as cybercriminals are present where data is stored in a large amount. Gartner data in Information & Technology suggests that 90% of security malfunctions through 2020 will be the customer’s fault. The developed cloud computing will involve faster machine-to-machine communication and enhanced data to the processing system. Artificial intelligence, Machine learning & the Internet of things are some upcoming subjects of growth and development. It helps to create a network to connect people for better communication and sharing of information within the same space using the same device.

IoT has been encouraged in every sphere of the workspace as they can leverage cloud computing with their high performance and flexibility. It allows the users a greater storage space and facilities to store information. Data privacy is going to be the next challenge for cloud service providers. Users would require faster loading services and applications, user-friendly procedures, and quick delivery and receiving rate. For which, modular software is being created to eliminate the headache of security, time, and cost.

Analysis of Top 3 Players in the Market

Amazon Web Services (AWS) is one of the oldest and most experienced players in the market since it started early i.e., in the year 2006. It provided a variety of functions like mobile networking, databases, storage, deployments, security, and much more.

Microsoft Azure (MA) which started in the year 2010, collaborates with AWS and provides almost the same functions. Along with that, it also provides better service storage, databases, and networking system.

Google Cloud Service Provider (GCP) began its journey in 2011. It initially focused on its services like Google and YouTube. After which, they started with enterprise services.

Factors to Analyse the Service Providers

  • Availability Zone

AWS has 55 Availability Zones with 8 more in process.

MA has 44 Availability Zones with 12 more in process.

GCP has 18 Availability Zones with 3 more in process.

  • Market Share

AWS is leading with 40% in the Public Cloud Market Share worldwide. But, according to a report of KeyBanc, AWS has lost 6% of its share in the global market recently.

MA is the second leading service provider with 30% of its share in the marketplace. It has moved from 26% to 30% in recent years.

GCP stands third with 10% of its share in the market. It has been reported to elevate from 8% to 10% in recent years.

  • Clients

AWS is the oldest and most experienced cloud service provider has high-profile customers like Netflix, Airbnb, Unilever, BMW, Samsung, Xiaomi, and Zynga in its bag.

MA is no less than AWS and has almost 500 fortune companies like Johnson Controls, Polycom, HP, and Apple.

GCP manages to attain some global companies like HSBC, PayPal, Bloomberg, Target, and Dominos.

  • Services

The services provided are categorized into several domains like Compute, Database, Storage, & Monitoring. AWS, MA, GCP provides 200,100,60 services respectively.

Concerning compute, AWS has EC2 (runs virtual machine or OS with on-premises infra) which takes 1 minute time to compute the information. MA has a Virtual Machine that takes a similar time as AWS. GCP on the other hand has a cloud engine, which takes a few seconds to run the machine.

If we talk about Databases, AWS has Relational Database Service which is operated by MySQL, MariaDB, and Oracle. The update occurs automatically without any intervention. MA has the same operational database but can be operated through MySQL only. GCP on the other hand just has SQL for its functioning and operation.

For storage, AWS has a Simple Storage Service (S3) where the data is stored in the form of objects in the root folders. MA has Blob Storage which is also an object-based file system. GCP has similar storage as that of MA.

AWS has a Cloud watch to monitor the traffic, kind of traffic, geographical representation, and performance. MA on the other hand has Azure app insight and GCP with Stack driver having almost the same functions as AWS.

  • Pricing

AWS provides 2vCPUs + 8GB RAM which costs around $69/month. It has an additional service of 3.84TB RAM +128 vCPUs which amounts to $3.97/hr.

MA provides 2vCPUs + 8GB RAM which costs around $70/month with an expandable 3.89TB+ 128vCPUs which amounts to $3.97/hr.

GCP on the other hand provides 2vCPUs + 8GB RAM which costs around $52/month with an expandable feature of 160vCPUs+ 3.75TB RAM which amounts to $5.32/hr.

Pros & Cons of Cloud Computing

  • Pros
  • Reduced IT costs
  • Flexibility
  • Cloud computing automatically consolidates data across all centers. 
  • Scalability
  • Cloud’s data is veritably more secure, courtesy of the multiple servers and layered backup.
  • Cons
  • Data loss or leakage
  • Service hijacking and attacks
  • Technology susceptibilities
  • Highly dependent on Internet Connection
  • Exposure to malware infections


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